All prisoners are entitled to spend at least one hour a day in the open air
The prison service offers activities to prisoners
Untried prisoners have access to fewer activities than sentenced prisoners. Daily walks are sometimes the only time they are outside of their cells.
Maximum security regimes include three hours of daily activities, counting a one-hour walk. The closed regime allows four hours of daily activities outside of cells.
Several prisoners from various facilities have complained about the limited number of proposed activities.
There are designated places for physical activities and sports
Exercise equipment is sometimes placed in the exercise yard. A number of facilities have soccer fields.
The APADOR-CH noted that in 2019, the Craiova prison had a sports room with seven pieces of weight training and fitness equipment and a ping-pong table.1
There are designated places for cultural activities
Prisoners are not included in the choices of activities offered.
Access to activities depends on the prisoner’s detention regime as well as the number of available places.
Prison facilities have a library
There is a library in each facility. The one in Craiova prison has around 5,000 books.
Work is compulsory
Number and percentage of prisoners who work
This number corresponds to the prisoners with paying jobs.
Variation in the number of prisoners who work
All prisoners are allowed to work
Labour as a punitive measure is prohibited
The prison service offers prisoners general work in the facilities: maintenance, agricultural activities or meal preparation.
It also offers companies the opportunity to employ prisoners. The work can be carried out on the outside, in prison workshops or in cells. The work primarily includes building construction and infrastructure, agriculture, forestry, metalwork, carpentry, landscaping, building and upkeep of hydraulic networks, manufacturing electronic components and packaging, handling, sewing and shoemaking.
A commission submits work proposals to the establishment director according to the detention regime and prisoner profiles. Prisoners must complete a medical visit before beginning their work.
Prisoners can ask to perform specific types of work depending on what is available and their qualifications. They can also work as volunteers.
Outside companies sign an agreement for every prisoner, with the facility acting as a contractor.
Maximum daily/weekly working hours are set, including at least one day of rest
Working prisoners have the right to weekly breaks. Work is limited to eight hours a day and 40 hours a week.
Prisoners are paid for their work
in most cases
Some prisoners doing general work are not paid. This is usually the case in pre-trial detention centres. They are instead granted ‘privileges’, like longer visits or permission to leave the prison for a short time.
This is the case, for example, in Jilava prison. The jobs in the food sector in this facility are unpaid. They are remunerated with remission of sentence or ‘credits’. The prisoner earns two credits for each day worked. The credits allow for an extra parcel, an extra family or conjugal visit, a temporary release, the repeal of a sanction.
significantly below the national minimum wage
The net wages paid by the companies are comparable to salaries on the outside. The prison service takes 60% of what prisoners receive from their work. Prisoners are allowed to use 10% of their income during their confinement. The rest is put in an account in their name that they can access when they are released.
As of 1 January 2019, the cost per prisoner is $12.34 lei (roughly 2.5 euros) per hour for outside companies. In 2019, the prison service received 61 million lei, or 10 million euros, thanks to the work prisoners did.
Their income is subject to social contributions
Companies hiring prisoners are exempt from making social contributions for these contracts.
Health and safety standards applicable outside are respected in prison
A prisoner that is the victim of a work accident can receive a disability pension.
Education and vocational training
Authority(ies) in charge of education and vocational training
- Ministry of Education and Research
- Ministry of Justice
Prisoners enrolled in educational training
The number of prisoners enrolled in primary and secondary education for the 2019/2020 academic year are 687 and 880, respectively. Those enrolled in post-secondary education or vocational training are 432 in number. Two prisoners are enrolled in university.
The prison system has a record of 31,375 prisoners who took part in one of the proposed educational programmes.
Education and professional training are managed by staff of the Ministry of Education and that of the prison services.
Education is provided
in all facilities
Prisoners who wish to enrol in a university course or in any other type of training offered outside the prison facility will require the authorisation of the prison director. Prisoners take distance learning courses and are solely responsible for the fees.
Education is available for all prisoners
Prisoners can resume or continue their education. Priority is given to the schooling of minors within the facility.
The prison service implements measures to fight illiteracy
Prisoners are allowed to pass diplomas and entry examinations
Obtaining a degree can lead to a reduced sentence.
Vocational training is provided
Vocational training is available for all prisoners
Opportunities for vocational training in prison are increasingly rare.
Distance courses are available
Access to information
Prisoners are allowed to keep themselves informed regularly on public affairs
Prisoners have access to a television
Shared cells usually have at least one television.
Prisoners have access to a radio
Prisoners have access to the press
The prison service provides free newspapers for prisoners. Prisoners can subscribe to other newspapers at their own expense.
The prison service allows access to Internet
Prisoners can use computers and communicate via internet on the recommendation of an educational counsellor and with the consent of the prison director.
The facility prohibits posters, films or newspapers considered to be racist, xenophobic or pornographic.
Most prisoners are Orthodox Christians. Catholics, Protestants and Muslim prisoners are in the minority.
Prisoners are free to practice their religion and follow their beliefs
Three Jewish prisoners in Rahova prison are forced to practise their faith only in their cells, as no religious representatives and dedicated place of worship are available. They express having conflicts with their Christian co-prisoners. In August 2020, the NPM recommends, that the prison service keep these three prisoners in the same cell.
Dedicated places of worship are available
in most facilities
Most facilities have a chapel, which is typically Orthodox. It is often used for other worship rites.
There are chaplains in the prisons
depending on the type of worship rite
Orthodox priests officiate in most of the facilities. They usually allow other chaplains to use the chapel or their chaplaincy.
The prison service does not guarantee the availability of r from other faiths.
The prison service remunerates the chaplains
depending on the type of worship rite
Some facilities directly employ an Orthodox chaplain.
Individuals or organisations from the outside are allowed to participate in prison activities
Authorisations for external actors to take part in prison activities are provided by
- the prison management body
- the head of the facility
NGOs working in the prison are not paid by the prison service.
Prisoners are allowed to make use of financial resources
Financial resources are accessible
in personal account
Prisoners can receive money from their loved ones through personal accounts. Money can be sent via bank orders or direct deposit. Prisoners can send money to their family members if justified in doing so and after approval by the prison director.1
Prisoners in open regimes are allowed to keep cash or bank cards with them.2
Expression of prisoners
Prisoners have the right to vote