A copy of the prison regulations is made available to the prisoners


Prisoners are notified of internal rules and the administration ensures a booklet in each cell.

Prisoners can be assisted by a lawyer throughout their incarceration


Prisoners can write to their lawyers but these letters are read by authorities and subject to censoring. Prison wardens usually monitor meetings with lawyers also.

Number of deaths in custody



Number of deaths attributed to suicide


Each institution announces inmate deaths and (possible) causes of these deaths, but official statistics do not include a breakdown of causes.

The prohibition of torture is enshrined in the Constitution and the legislation


The prohibition of torture is enshrined in article 36 of the Constitution.
Articles 195 and 196 of the Criminal Code set out the penalties for such offences.

The United Nations Convention against Torture (UNCAT) was

yes, in 1999

Detained persons have the possibility to lodge a complaint about their conditions of detention against the prison administration.

Japanese law provides three ways for convicted prisoners to raise concerns about treatment within the prison:

  • A procedure called ‘claim for review’ (shinsa no shinsei), in which complaints are directed to the superintendent of the regional correction headquarters about the implementation of prison rules (for example, punishment or refusal of medical treatment) within 30 days of any incident.

  • A procedure called ‘report of cases’ (jijitsu o shinkoku) by which you can complain to the superintendent of the regional correction headquarters if you are assaulted or unreasonably restrained within 30 days of any incident.

  • The third way to raise concerns is to make a complaint (kujo no shinshutsu) to either the warden of the institution, to an inspector conducting an on-the-spot inspection, or to the Minister of Justice.

If a prisoner is dissatisfied with the outcome of either of these procedures, they can appeal to the Minister of Justice.
The relevant form should be asked to a prison officer to raise concerns in one of these ways. While authorities permit prisoners and detainees to submit complaints without censorship and to request investigation of poor conditions, they are usually responded to with little detail beyond a final determination.

The Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment (OPCAT) was


However, the government has so far been reluctant to ratify the Optional Protocol to the UNCAT (OPCAT), which requires the creation of an independent National Preventive Mechanism.

An NPM has been established


The law provides for a sentence adjustment system


Sentence adjustments can be granted during the incarceration


There is no clear and substantive criterion for parole disclosed to prisoners. The level of parole granted by prison officers is very restricted.

Specific categories of prisoners are ineligible for sentence adjustment


Under a 1998 administrative order, persons sentenced to life imprisonment are not eligible for parole.

The law provides for a temporary release system


Commuting to the outside world, day leave and furloughs are sometimes allowed in order to encourage reform and rehabilitation and re entry into society.